# Book Value of Equity BVE Formula + Calculator

The book value of equity will be calculated by subtracting the \$40mm in liabilities from the \$60mm in assets, or \$20mm. Remember that the markets are forward-looking and the market value is dependent on the outlook of the company (and industry) by investors. Next, the “Treasury Stock” line item captures the value of repurchased shares that were previously outstanding and available to be traded in the open market. Book value gets its name from accounting lingo, where the accounting journal and ledger are known as a company’s “books.” In fact, another name for accounting is bookkeeping. But an important point to understand is that these investors view this simply as a sign that the company is potentially undervalued, not that the fundamentals of the company are necessarily strong.

The book value per share (BVPS) metric can be used by investors to gauge whether a stock price is undervalued by comparing it to the firm’s market value per share. If a company’s BVPS is higher than its market value per share—its current stock price—then the stock is considered undervalued. If the firm’s BVPS increases, the stock should be perceived as more valuable, and the stock price should increase.

## Retained Earnings (or Accumulated Deficit)

The BVPS is a conservative way for investors to measure the real value of a company’s stocks, which is done by calculating what stockholders will own when the company liquidates and all debts paid up. Value investors prefer using the BVPS as a gauge of a stock’s potential value when future growth and earnings projections are less stable. On the other hand, book value per share is an accounting-based tool that is calculated using historical costs. Unlike the market value per share, the metric is not forward-looking, and it does not reflect the actual market value of a company’s shares. Book value per share (BVPS) is the ratio of equity available to common shareholders divided by the number of outstanding shares. This figure represents the minimum value of a company’s equity and measures the book value of a firm on a per-share basis.

1. Book value gets its name from accounting lingo, where the accounting journal and ledger are known as a company’s “books.” In fact, another name for accounting is bookkeeping.
2. The book value of equity (BVE), or “Shareholders’ Equity”, is the amount of cash remaining once a company’s assets have been sold off and if existing liabilities were paid down with the sale proceeds.
3. On the other hand, if XYZ uses \$300,000 of the earnings to reduce liabilities, common equity also increases.
4. However, if advertising efforts enhance the image of a company’s products, the company can charge premium prices and create brand value.
5. But in general, most companies expected to grow and produce higher profits in the future are going to have a book value of equity less than their market capitalization.
6. The book value of common equity in the numerator reflects the original proceeds a company receives from issuing common equity, increased by earnings or decreased by losses, and decreased by paid dividends.

Another way to increase BVPS is to repurchase common stock from shareholders and many companies use earnings to buy back shares. In theory, BVPS is the sum that shareholders would receive in the event that the firm was liquidated, all of the tangible assets were sold and all of the liabilities were paid. However, its value lies in the fact that investors use it to gauge whether a stock price is undervalued by comparing it to the firm’s market value per share. If a company’s BVPS is higher than its market value per share, which is its current stock price, then the stock is considered undervalued.

As for the next projection period, Year 2, we’ll simply extend each operating assumption from Year 1, and thus, the BVPS will be \$1.14 what is the extended accounting equation again. If relevant, the value of preferred equity claims should also be subtracted from the numerator, the book value of equity.

A P/B ratio of 1.0 indicates that the market price of a company’s shares is exactly equal to its book value. For value investors, this may signal a good buy since the market price of a company generally carries some premium over book value. Nevertheless, most companies with expectations to grow and produce profits in the future will have a book value of equity per share lower than their current publicly traded market share price. However, the market value of equity stems from the real, per-share prices paid in the market as of the most recent trading date of a company’s equity.

In return, the accumulation of earnings could be used to reduce liabilities, which leads to higher book value of equity (and BVPS). For companies seeking to increase their book value of equity per share (BVPS), profitable reinvestments can lead to more cash. As suggested by the name, the “book” value per share calculation begins with finding the necessary balance sheet data from the latest financial report (e.g. 10-K, 10-Q). From the opposite perspective, the less promising the future growth and profit opportunities seem, the more the book and market value of equity will converge. The equity value recorded on the books is significantly understated from the market value in most cases. For example, the book value of Apple’s shareholders’ equity is worth around \$64.3 billion as of its latest 10-Q filing in 2021.

The market value per share represents the current price of a company’s shares, and it is the price that investors are willing to pay for common stocks. The market value is forward-looking and considers a company’s earning ability in future periods. As the company’s expected growth and profitability increase, the market value per share is expected to increase further. It may not include intangible assets such as patents, intellectual property, brand value, and goodwill.

## Market Value Per Share vs. Book Value Per Share

When calculating the book value per share of a company, we base the calculation on the common stockholders’ equity, and the preferred stock should be excluded from the value of equity. It is because preferred stockholders are ranked higher than common stockholders during liquidation. The BVPS represents the value of equity that remains after paying up all debts and the company’s assets liquidated. However, as the assets would be sold at market prices, and book value uses the historical costs of assets, market value is considered a better floor price than book value for a company. The company could be trading much higher than its book value because the market’s valuation takes into account the company’s intangible assets, such as intellectual property.

## Example of BVPS

Therefore, the amount of cash remaining once all outstanding liabilities are paid off is captured by the book value of equity. Generally speaking, the more optimistic the prospects of the company are, the more the book value of equity and market value of equity will deviate from one another. Even though it is plausible for a company to trade at a market value below its book value, it is a rather uncommon occurrence (and not necessarily indicative of a buying opportunity). For high-growth companies, it’s far more likely that earnings will be used to reinvest in ongoing expansion plans.

On the other hand, if XYZ uses \$300,000 of the earnings to reduce liabilities, common equity also increases. The book value of common equity in the numerator reflects the original proceeds a company receives from issuing common equity, increased by earnings or decreased by losses, and decreased by paid dividends. Stock repurchases occur at current stock prices, which can result in a significant reduction in a company’s https://www.kelleysbookkeeping.com/common-size-financial-statement/ book value per common share. Using the XYZ example, assume that the firm repurchases 200,000 shares of stock and that 800,000 shares remain outstanding. Besides stock repurchases, a company can also increase BVPS by taking steps to increase the asset balance and reduce liabilities. The book value per share and the market value per share are some of the tools used to evaluate the value of a company’s stocks.

For example, intangible factors affect the value of a company’s shares and are left out when calculating the BVPS. We’ll assume the trading price in Year 0 was \$20.00, and in Year 2, the market share price increases to \$26.00, which is a 30.0% year-over-year increase. Often called shareholder’s equity, the “book value of equity” is an accrual accounting-based metric prepared for bookkeeping purposes and recorded on the balance sheet.

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